Your urinary tract starts at your kidneys, located on either side of your back and protected by the lower ribs. The ureters are tubes which carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder, the urinary bladder is a muscular sac which stores urine until you’re ready to release it; your urethra is the tube which drains urine from the bladder to the outside. While this system is anatomically simple, there are lots of surrounding structures which can affect the flow of urine, causing urinary problems. Urologists evaluate and treat these common problems, as well as any other problem with the mechanics of the urinary system, using medications, behavior modification and surgery when needed.
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Kidney stones are hard, small deposits that form inside your kidneys. They form when your urine becomes too concentrated, which allows minerals to crystallize stick together. The main cause of kidney stones is dehydration.
Macroplastique is an injectable soft-tissue bulking agent used to treat female and male urinary incontinence, and Vesicoureteral Reflux (VUR) primarily in children. Macroplastique is a synthetic material made of a silicone elastomer that is permanent and not absorbed by the body. Silicone elastomer is a preferred material for medical devices such as pacemaker leads, catheters, shunts, artifical hips, and subdermal implants for controlled release of pharmaceuticals. It is this permanent material that creates the bulking effect.
Other urologic conditions including, but not limited to scrotal surgery, bladder and urethra exam, bladder exam, male sterilization, upper urinary tract examination, partial prostate removal, repair of dropped bladder, and male sterilization reversal.
Scrotal surgery: There are a number of surgical procedures performed through the thin scrotal wall; you should expect that your scrotum will get “black and blue” in the days after surgery and discomfort can usually be relieved by applying a package of frozen peas or corn.
Bladder and urethra exam: In this simple procedure, also called “cystoscopy”, a slender lighted scope is gently threaded into the bladder. The physician can then directly examine the walls of the bladder and urethra, the tube connecting the bladder to the outside of the body.
Bladder exam: In this simple procedure, also called “cystoscopy”, a slender lighted scope is gently threaded into the bladder. The physician can then directly examine the walls of the bladder.
Male sterilization: Similar to tubal ligation in women, this procedure involves surgically blocking the tubes (vas deferens) which carry sperm. There are several different techniques used, but the surgery is simple, quick and highly effective; tiny openings are made in the scrotum to allow mechanical blockage of the tubes with ties or clips, and sutures are generally not needed.
Upper urinary tract examination: The upper urinary tract includes the kidney and ureter, a long tube which carries urine from the kidney to the bladder. While x-rays and similar tests are usually performed, sometimes a very slender, flexible light scope is threaded through the bladder into the ureter to allow the doctor to directly see the lining.
Partial prostate removal: When men age, the prostate will frequently enlarge, causing urinary symptoms. The prostate gland surrounds the base of the bladder and the urethra (the tube carrying urine from the bladder to the outside) and when the prostate enlarges enough to block the flow, prostate tissue surrounding the urethra can be removed. There are several different surgical procedures which can be used, ranging from treatment through a tube placed into the urethra to incisions above or below the pubic bone. You and your doctor will discuss your specific needs so that you can decide on the best procedure for you.
Repair of “dropped bladder”: As we age, the shelf of muscles which support the bladder may weaken, causing the bladder to drop down further in the pelvis. This disrupts the normal valve function controlling urine flow and leakage can occur, especially with coughing or sneezing. Dropped bladder (bladder prolapse) can be repaired by surgically elevating the bladder to its anatomical position, using sutures or other materials as a sling.
Male sterilization reversal: If a man with a vasectomy wants more children, the vas deferens (the tubes carrying sperm to the semen) can be surgically opened; the exact procedure will depend on the method used to tie them originally. Usually, the surgeon will remove the blocked portion of the tubes, re-attaching the healthy open ends surgically. This procedure may be less successful than reversing tubal ligation in women, because the vas deferens are very small.
Pediatric urologists treat children with many pediatric urological conditions including bedwetting, urinary tract infections, incontinence, hernias, phimosis, and hypospadias.
ILVY COTTERELL, M.D.
Dr. Cotterell specializes in orthopaedic and hand surgery.
VCU Upper Extremity and Peripheral Nerve Center
9000 Stony Point Parkway
Suite 280 Richmond, VA 23235
Phone: (804) 628-4206
VCU Medical Center Ambulatory Care Center
417 North 11th Street
Suite 280 Richmond, VA 23219
Phone: (804) 828-7069
JOHN EDMONDSON, M.D.
Dr. Edmondson specializes in pediatric urology.
8700 Stony Point Parkway, Suite 250
Richmond, Virginia 23235
Phone: (804) 828-2467
Urinary incontinence is the loss of bladder control. This can result in the occasional leaking of urine or not being able to make it to the restroom in time.
A urinary tract infection occurs when germs get into your urinary tract through your urethra.